virtual reality laparoscopic surgery simulationphysical modelingforce feedbackcollision detection
A hybrid physical -based deformation modeling (HPDM)technique for our laparoscopic surgery simulation system is proposed. The proposed technique consists of three components: (i)approximate continuum free -form deformation modeling, (ii)efficient collision detection for non-rigid objects, and (iii)mass-spring modeling for force feed back implementation. Three physical -based deformation modeling techniques have been applied on the surgical simulation which are mass -spring model, approximate continuum model, and finite element model. All these models have disadvantages of less realism or time consuming. Here, we propose the HPDM to achieve the realistic deformation of organs in a computationally efficient framework. The proposed HPDM exhibits more physical accuracy and realism than the mass-spring modeling exhibits and exposes more advantages of more efficient computation, allowing topology change, and satisfying arbitrary geometric meshes than the approximate continuum model exposes.